Atypical Mycobacteria

 

Chronic Granulomatous Disease

Chronic Granulomatous Disease - Atypical mycobacteria has been reported to cause pulmonary disease in patients with CGD. Proper IFN-gamma and IL-12 signaling is required to activate phagocytes to clear intracellular pathogens such as mycobacteria. The following conditions have impairment of this pathway:

 

 

Interferon Gamma & IL-12 Receptor Deficiency

 

IFN-gamma and IL-12 Receptor deficiency - Patients most commonly present with Mycobacterium avium infections. Infections that spread to bones and visceral organs (rather than isolated cervical lymphadenitis) are characteristic.

 

 

STAT1 Deficiency

 

STAT 1 deficiency - Partial and complete STAT1 deficiency is associated with mycobacterial infections because STAT1 is required for IFN-gamma pathway signaling.

 

 

Tyk2 Deficiency

Tyk 2 deficiency - This disease is associated with mycobacterial disease because Tyk2 is required for IL-12 signaling.

 

 

NEMO Deficiency

 

NEMO deficiency - Patients develop mycobacterial disease due to impaired IL-12 production in response to CD40-CD40L signaling. NF-kB is also activated in response to toll-like receptor signaling. A number of TLRs (TLR1 and TLR2) recognize lipoarabinomannan, a mycobacterial glycolipid.