Chronic Granulomatous Disease - Atypical mycobacteria has been reported to cause pulmonary disease in patients with CGD. Proper IFN-gamma and IL-12 signaling is required to activate phagocytes to clear intracellular pathogens such as mycobacteria. The following conditions have impairment of this pathway:
IFN-gamma and IL-12 Receptor deficiency - Patients most commonly present with Mycobacterium avium infections. Infections that spread to bones and visceral organs (rather than isolated cervical lymphadenitis) are characteristic.
STAT 1 deficiency - Partial and complete STAT1 deficiency is associated with mycobacterial infections because STAT1 is required for IFN-gamma pathway signaling.
Tyk 2 deficiency - This disease is associated with mycobacterial disease because Tyk2 is required for IL-12 signaling.
NEMO deficiency - Patients develop mycobacterial disease due to impaired IL-12 production in response to CD40-CD40L signaling. NF-kB is also activated in response to toll-like receptor signaling. A number of TLRs (TLR1 and TLR2) recognize lipoarabinomannan, a mycobacterial glycolipid.